Voronezh city – the administrative centre of the Voronezh Oblast (Region) of Russian Federation, a big industrial and cultural centre, a Railroad Junction. Situated on the both banks of the Voronezh River, which is left side tributary of the Don River. Population is 1 003 638 (01.01.2013). Voronezh was firstly mentioned in chronicles in 1177, but real relation of an ancient Voronezh with the contemporary one has not still being approved. The year 1586 is considered as a date of foundation of Voronezh.
Voronezh makes much of its connection with Peter the Great who came to Voronezh several times to oversee the building of Russia’s first naval fleet. While Peter the Great was staying in Voronezh became in fact the administrative centre of Russia.
In the second half of the 18th century and First half of 19th Voronezh was a centre of cloth materials production giving about 25 % cloth to sew military uniform.
In1928 Voronezh became a Centre of the Central Black Soil Oblast (Region), and in 1934 renamed to Voronezh Oblast (Region). In the 1930s Voronezh settled on both sides of the river. On the left bank of the river were built two big factories; Synthetic Rubber (caoutchouc) and Aircraft. In the city was formed one of the most important scientific-industrial complexes in the USSR. The production of aircrafts increased quickly. Before the Great Patriotic War organized serial production of IL-2 famous attack planes.
On the first day of the World War II in Voronezh Region declared the state of martial law. All the factories transferred to mass military production. The Comintern Factory began serial production of legendary “Katyusha” rocket launchers. On 25 January 1943 Voronezh was completely liberated.
During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed. By 1950, Voronezh was rebuilt.
On 16 February 2008 according to the Decree of the President of Russian Federation Voronezh was conferred a status of the “City of Martial Glory”.
The city is served by the Voronezh International Airport. Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Voronezh and Moscow.
The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center of higher education in central Russia. In 1785 was created first society educational institution – Popular College, which in 1809 transformed into gymnasium and County College. In 1913 was founded the first institution of higher education – Agricultural Institute.
The main educational facilities include now:
Voronezh State University
Voronezh State Medical Academy
Voronezh State Technical University
Voronezh State University of Architecture and Construction
Voronezh State Pedagogical University
Voronezh State Agricultural University
Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
Voronezh State Academy of Arts
Voronezh State Forestry Engineering Academy
Voronezh State Institute of Physical Training